Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA)

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The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960

(59 of 1960)

As amended by Central Act 26 of 1982.
Arrangement of sections

Chapter 1 - Preliminary

1. Short title, extent and commencement.

2. Definitions

3. Duties of persons having charge of animals.

Chapter II - Animal Welfare Board Of India

4. Establishment of Animal Welfare Board of India.

5. Constitution of the Board.

5A. Reconstitution of the Board.

6. Term of Office and conditions of services of members of the Board.

7. Secretary and other employees of the Board.

8. Funds of the Board.

9. Functions of the Board.

10. Power of Board to make regulations.

Chapter III - Cruelty To Animals Generally

11. Treating animals cruelty.

12. Penalty for practising Phooka or doom dev.

13. Destruction of suffering animals.

Chapter IV - Experimentation Of Animals

14. Experiments on animals.

15. Committee for control and supervision of experiments on animals.

15A. Sub-Committee.

16. Staff of the Committee.

17. Duties of the Committee and power of the Committee to make rules relating to experiments on animals

18. Power of entry and inspection.

19. Power to prohibit experiments an animals.

20. Penalties.

Chapter V - Performing Animals

21. "Exhibit" and "Trained" defined.

22. Restriction on exhibition and training of performing animals.

23. Procedure for registration

24. Power of court to prohibit or restrict exhibition and training of performing animals.

25. Power to enter premises

26. Offences

27. Exemptions.

Chapter VI - Miscellaneous

28. Saving as respects manner of killing prescribed by religion.

29. Power of court to deprive person convicted of ownership of animal.

30. Presumptions as to guilt in certain cases.

31. Cognizability of offences.

32. Powers of search and seizure.

33. Search warrants.

34. General Power of Seizure for examination.

35. Treatment and care of animals.

36. Limitation of prosecutions.

37. Delegation of powers.

38. Power to make rules.

38A. Rules and regulations to be laid before Parliament.

39. Persons authorised under section 34 to be public servants.

40. Indemnity.

41. Repeal of Act 11 of 1890.

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Animals can suffer like humans do, so it is speciesism to experiment on them while we refrain from experimenting on humans. All suffering is undesirable, whether it be in humans or animals. Discriminating against animals because they do not have the cognitive ability, language, or moral judgment that humans do is no more justifiable than discriminating against human beings with severe mental impairments. As English philosopher Jeremy Bentham wrote in the 1700s, "The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?"

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Animal tests do not reliably predict results in human beings. 94% of drugs that pass animal tests fail in human clinical trials. According to neurologist Aysha Akhtar, MD, MPH, over 100 stroke drugs that were effective when tested on animals have failed in humans, and over 85 HIV vaccines failed in humans after working well in non-human primates. A 2013 study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) found that nearly 150 clinical trials of treatments to reduce inflammation in critically ill patients have been undertaken, and all of them failed, despite being successful in animal tests. A 2013 study in Archives of Toxicology stated that "The low predictivity of animal experiments in research areas allowing direct comparisons of mouse versus human data puts strong doubt on the usefulness of animal data as key technology to predict human safety."

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Drugs that pass animal tests are not necessarily safe. The 1950s sleeping pill thalidomide, which caused 10,000 babies to be born with severe deformities, was tested on animals prior to its commercial release. Animal tests on the arthritis drug Vioxx showed that it had a protective effect on the hearts of mice, yet the drug went on to cause more than 27,000 heart attacks and sudden cardiac deaths before being pulled from the market.

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Animals are very different from human beings and therefore make poor test subjects. The anatomic, metabolic, and cellular differences between animals and people make animals poor models for human beings. Paul Furlong, Professor of Clinical Neuroimaging at Aston University (UK), states that "it's very hard to create an animal model that even equates closely to what we're trying to achieve in the human." Thomas Hartung, Professor of evidence-based toxicology at Johns Hopkins University, argues for alternatives to animal testing because "we are not 70 kg rats."

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Stop Animal testing!
Use alternative testing methods!

Alternative testing methods now exist that can replace the need for animals. In vitro (in glass) testing, such as studying cell cultures in a petri dish, can produce more relevant results than animal testing because human cells can be used. Microdosing, the administering of doses too small to cause adverse reactions, can be used in human volunteers, whose blood is then analyzed. Artificial human skin, such as the commercially available products EpiDerm and ThinCert, is made from sheets of human skin cells grown in test tubes or plastic wells and can produce more useful results than testing chemicals on animal skin. Microfluidic chips ("organs on a chip"), which are lined with human cells and recreate the functions of human organs, are in advanced stages of development. Computer models, such as virtual reconstructions of human molecular structures, can predict the toxicity of substances without invasive experiments on animals.

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Important Information : Telephone line and Power supply down at Blue Cross of India , In the process of digging for Metro-water work happening on the road to Blue Cross they have cut the electrical and telephone cables . As a result of this we don't have any power supply and are running on Genset power intermittently. Also the telephone lines are down so temporarily no one is able to get in touch with us. Kindly bear with us till the situation is sorted out . We will update as soon as this is rectified. ... See MoreSee Less

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